A microphone, also known as the electroacoustic condenser, converts sound or acoustical energy into electrical energy. A microphone has two ways of performing that conversion, either by reacting to pressure or velocity of particles.
Aside from polar patterns, microphones can be classified according to transducer types, of which there are three.
The prohibitive cost of ribbon microphones make it a rare commodity, confined within well equipped and upscale recording studio. That is why recording setups that you will see will almost always be confined to using either dynamic or condenser microphones. Therefore, these are the two which we should focus on learning how to use.
Shure (n.d.). Microphones: transducer types. Retrieved from http://www.shure.co.uk/support_download/educational_content/microphones-basics/microphone_transducer_types.
Stearns, L. (2014). Microphone types. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJD-PBBQkJ4.
Iwancio, P. (2009). Categories of microphones: transducers. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AjtaF0r4ZDI.